以《地平线禁忌西游》为灵感的丛林场景-迈克尔·杰拉德-双语
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发布于 2022-8-25 11:12:48 + 关注 4453

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Introduction
My name is Michael Gerard. I am a Technical Vegetation Artist at Ubisoft (Paris). I started 3D art like many people, in a bedroom, and by curiosity. It's only after playing The Witcher 3 that I wondered how to create these kinds of environments. I started by using the assets from the game to create my first environments in UE4.

Thanks to that, I was able to participate in the development of Ghost Recon Breakpoint in 2019 as a Terrain Artist. Since then, I have done a lot of freelance work on various video game projects and commercials and worked for French TV as an instructor. I also did a lot of scenes to fully comprehend UE5 and understand the limits of this new engine.
介绍
我的名字是迈克尔·杰拉德。我是育碧(巴黎)的技术植被艺术家。我像许多人一样,在卧室里,出于好奇,开始了3D艺术。只是在玩完《巫师3》之后,我才想知道如何创造这样的环境。我首先使用游戏中的资源在UE4中创建了我的第一个环境。

多亏了这一点,我才得以在2019年作为地形艺术家参与《幽灵行动断点》的开发。从那时起,我在各种视频游戏项目和商业广告上做了很多自由职业者的工作,并在法国电视台担任讲师。我还做了很多场景来完全理解UE5,并理解这个新引擎的局限性。
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The Jungle River Project
The beginnings of this scene were very messy because I had to choose an environment to inspire me. At first, I had decided on the giant sequoias forest. The composition of this biome seemed interesting and not too complicated since it's an environment I had already worked on for personal projects. Then I realized that there would not be enough challenge and that it did not take me out of my comfort zone.
丛林河项目
这个场景的开始非常混乱,因为我必须选择一个环境来激励我。起初,我决定在巨大的红杉森林上。这个生物群系的组成似乎很有趣,而且并不太复杂,因为这是我已经为个人项目工作过的环境。然后我意识到,没有足够的挑战,它并没有让我走出我的舒适区。
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It's only by playing Horizon Forbidden West and by discovering the jungle that I stopped my choice. It's a type of environment that I had never done before. The challenge was even more complicated as I had to find a solution to get rivers as close as possible to those seen in the game
只有通过玩《地平线禁忌西部》和发现丛林,我才停止了我的选择。这是一种我以前从未做过的环境。挑战甚至更加复杂,因为我必须找到一个解决方案,让河流尽可能接近游戏中看到的河流。
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When I work on a scene inspired by a game, I avoid going to other references than those present in the game. The goal is to stick as much as possible to the spirit of the game, going to look elsewhere could distort my idea and my feeling left by my gameplay sessions.

Also, the photo modes present in the games are real tools for me. They help me to look at the composition of the model in great detail. Where does the stem start and where does it end, which techniques were used to arrange the leaves, are they complete branches or individual leaves, etc.? It allows me to analyze the textures in more detail. I must be the only one to use the photo modes so close to the plants, by the way.
当我在一个受游戏启发的场景中工作时,我会避免去寻找游戏中存在的参考资料以外的其他参考资料。目标是尽可能地坚持游戏的精神,去别处看可能会扭曲我的想法和我在游戏过程中留下的感觉。

此外,游戏中的照片模式对我来说是真正的工具。它们帮助我非常详细地查看模型的组成。茎从哪里开始,在哪里结束,用哪些技术来排列叶子,它们是完整的分支还是单个叶子,等等?它使我能够更详细地分析纹理。顺便说一句,我一定是唯一一个使用如此靠近植物的照片模式的人。

The Modeling Workflow
Most of the details have been created with SpeedTree 9, except the 3D branches and the rocks, which come from Megascans. The trees are hybrids, the structure of the tree (trunks and branches) was made with Nanite, and the foliage keeps the classical approach.
建模工作流程
大部分细节都是用SpeedTree 9创建的,除了来自Megascans的3D分支和岩石。树木是杂交种,树木的结构(树干和树枝)是用Nanite制成的,叶子保持了经典的方法。
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All the trunk, leaf, and terrain textures come from Megascans and ScansLibrary. Combined on Mixer for the terrain ones and modified on Substance 3D Designer for the plants and foliage ones in order to add details, cracks, or color variations.

Unfortunately, I gave this tool to Ubisoft, so I can't show it, but overall, it isolates the edges of my texture and from this mask, I can create cracks and variations on the edges. By reversing this mask, I can concentrate on the changes in the center of my texture.
所有树干,树叶和地形纹理都来自Megascans和ScansLibrary。在混合器上组合用于地形,并在Substance 3D Designer上为植物和树叶进行修改,以添加细节,裂缝或颜色变化。

不幸的是,我把这个工具给了育碧,所以我不能展示它,但总的来说,它隔离了我的纹理边缘,从这个蒙版中,我可以在边缘上创建裂缝和变化。通过反转这个蒙版,我可以专注于纹理中心的变化。
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Setting Up Vegetation
For the foliage, I had to go further than I usually do. If we take the example of the Asplenium, making a plan alone was not enough, it lacked volume. So I switched to 3ds Max and used the Ripple modifier.
设置植被
对于树叶,我必须比平时走得更远。如果我们以Asplenium为例,仅制定计划是不够的,它缺乏数量。所以我切换到3ds Max并使用Ripple修改器。
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In order for everything to work perfectly, I had to push the number of polygons a little further than it should be for real-time. But I lose very quickly this polygons excess over the LODs and the last one is an impostor, so it has very little impact on the performance.
为了使一切完美运行,我不得不将多边形的数量推得比实时要远一点。但是我很快就失去了这个多边形在LOD上的过度,最后一个是骗子,所以它对性能的影响很小。
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As for the trees, these are hybrids, as explained above. The flowers contain a simple 3D stem, a plane for the flower and for the "leaves", it is a 3D object found on Megascans.
至于树木,如上所述,这些是杂交种。花朵包含一个简单的3D茎,一个用于花朵和“叶子”的平面,它是在Megascans上发现的3D对象。
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Tips on Vegetation Modeling
If I can give some advice on vegetation modeling, it would be on the level of trees at first. I see a lot of artists trying to stick to reality as much as possible, especially when it comes to the size of the leaves. If the idea is good, the result is often not conclusive when you switch to the engine because the foliage ends up flickering and it becomes complicated to define the type of trees you are looking at.

It is better to increase the size of the leaves even if it means putting less on a branch. The player or viewer will be able to more easily identify the tree he is looking at, even when they are in the second or third plane.

The important thing is the silhouette, the leaf should be recognizable no matter what the distance. Horizon Forbidden West does it very well, you can also notice it in Red Dead Redemption 2, even if it is sometimes pushed to the extreme on some models.
植被建模提示
如果我能就植被建模提供一些建议,那一定是在树木的层面上。我看到很多艺术家试图尽可能地坚持现实,特别是在叶子的大小方面。如果这个想法是好的,那么当你切换到引擎时,结果通常不是决定性的,因为树叶最终会闪烁,并且定义你正在看的树木类型变得复杂。

最好增加叶子的大小,即使这意味着减少树枝上的叶子。玩家或观众将能够更容易地识别他正在看的树,即使他们在第二或第三平面。

重要的是轮廓,无论距离多远,叶子都应该是可识别的。Horizon Forbidden West做得很好,你也可以在Red Dead Redemption 2中注意到它,即使它有时在某些模型上被推向极端。
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For ground vegetation, choose 3D stems rather than planes for dense patches. The result may be a bit heavier, but you will have less overdraw (transparency overlap). It is also easier to reduce the number of polygons in a 3d object than a plane based on an opacity texture.
对于地面植被,对于密集的斑块,请选择 3D 茎而不是平面。结果可能会有点重,但过度绘制(透明度重叠)会更少。与基于不透明度纹理的平面相比,减少 3d 对象中的多边形数量也更容易。
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Texturing
As said above, the textures come from ScansLibrary and Megascans, they are in 4k and 8k. I used the virtual textures to overcome the blurred textures of Nanite and added a normal amount of detail to add a little more relief:
纹理
如上所述,纹理来自ScansLibrary和Megascans,它们有4k和8k。我使用虚拟纹理来克服Nanite的模糊纹理,并添加了正常数量的细节以添加更多的缓解:
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Actually, these textures are quite simple, they were created on Quixel Mixer by combining several textures together. I only exported the Normal Map.
实际上,这些纹理非常简单,它们是在Quixel Mixer上通过将几个纹理组合在一起来创建的。我只导出了法线图。
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Assembling the Scene and Scattering Details
Before the final layout, I tested several of them but they didn't suit me, it wasn't "Horizon" enough, too small and too dense. On the opposite, I tried a much larger one, but I ran into a problem with the use of Fluid Flux. As it does not handle very well the large terrains, I had to redesign my entire layout to finally get the one you can see.
组装场景和散射细节
在最终布局之前,我测试了其中的几个,但它们不适合我,它不够“地平线”,太小,太密集。相反,我尝试了一个更大的,但我在使用Fluid Flux时遇到了问题。由于它不能很好地处理大型地形,我不得不重新设计我的整个布局,最终得到你可以看到的布局。
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The details of dead leaves, after having created them on SpeedTree. I placed them with the foliage tool and the Fill option for the rocks in the water. I then came to remove the misplaced or hanging branches.
枯叶的细节,在SpeedTree上创建它们之后。我用树叶工具和水中岩石的填充选项放置了它们。然后我来取下放错位置或悬挂的树枝。
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I always work from macro to micro, which makes more sense to me. So I started with the terrain for which I used the Landscape Stamping tool which allows you to modify the terrain with Blueprints and place the mountains as you want. This function is native to UE4/UE5, the tool just adds the possibility to use Height Maps.

For the variation of the terrain textures, I used a custom brush, also created on Quixel Mixer, and I would switch to Pattern paint mode based on the world coordinates.
我总是从宏观到微观工作,这对我来说更有意义。因此,我从地形开始,我使用了景观冲压工具,该工具允许您使用蓝图修改地形并根据需要放置山脉。此功能是UE4 / UE5的原生功能,该工具只是增加了使用高度地图的可能性。

对于地形纹理的变化,我使用了一个自定义画笔,也是在Quixel Mixer上创建的,我会根据世界坐标切换到图案绘画模式。
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I placed the cliffs and rocks and drew the river. I used the terrain spline tool to create the river bed, painted the desired textures, and ran the simulation. Once I had a convincing result, I placed the rocks in the river with a procedural foliage volume to run the water simulation one last time, baked it, and assigned the modified shader.

Then I moved on to the vegetation, first the big trees, then the smaller ones, and finally the ground vegetation. Once all that was in place, I laid out the moss on my rocks and debris.
我放置了悬崖和岩石,画了河。我使用地形样条工具创建了河床,绘制了所需的纹理,并运行了模拟。一旦我得到了一个令人信服的结果,我就将岩石放在河里,用程序化的树叶体积最后一次运行水模拟,烘烤它,并分配修改后的着色器。

然后我转向植被,首先是大树,然后是小树,最后是地面植被。一旦一切准备就绪,我就把苔藓铺在我的岩石和碎片上。
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Setting Up Lighting With Unreal Engine 5
For this scene, as for all the others, I utilized the basic UE5 lighting. A Skylight on which I added a white cubemap and adjusted the parameters related to the occlusion to solve the artifact problems.
使用虚幻引擎5设置光照
对于这个场景,就像所有其他场景一样,我使用了基本的UE5光照。一个天窗,我在其上添加了一个白色立方体贴图,并调整了与遮挡相关的参数以解决伪像问题。
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A Directional Light in which I change the Volumetric Scattering Intensity to increase the intensity of the Volumetric Fog.
一种定向光,我在其中更改体积散射强度以增加体积雾的强度。
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An Exponential Height Fog with the Volumetric checked.
检查体积的指数高度雾。
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A post-process volume in "unbound" in which I block the exposure between 0.5 and 2 depending on the scene. 0.8 for this one. I also deactivate the vignetting and I add a Color Grading (LUT) to accentuate the mood.
“未绑定”的后期处理体积,其中我根据场景在0.5和2之间阻止曝光。对于这个,0.8。我还停用了渐晕,并添加了颜色分级(LUT)以突出情绪。
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And a Sky Atmosphere in which I modify the parameters present in the category "Atmosphere - Rayleigh" to change the temperature of the atmosphere and the light.
还有一个天空大气,其中我修改了“大气 - 瑞利”类别中存在的参数,以改变大气和光的温度。
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Using the Fluid Flux Plug-In
It is a powerful and interesting tool. It allows you to easily create rivers and water points. It is very customizable and as it is a real-time simulation, you can quickly correct problems and add elements to influence the flow. It works in several parts, a simulation box and fully customizable water sources.
使用流体助焊剂插件
这是一个强大而有趣的工具。它使您可以轻松创建河流和水点。它是非常可定制的,因为它是实时模拟,因此您可以快速纠正问题并添加元素来影响流程。它分为几个部分,一个模拟盒和完全可定制的水源。
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But it suffers from some limitations and problems anyway. It is limited to small areas, on large maps, it becomes complicated to generate everything in real-time, even on a big machine. I haven't tried to lay down several simulations, so I don't know if they merge together.

You can bake the simulation, but it is limited to a square texture (512x512, 1024x1024...). I didn't try to push the thing to see if it was possible to override the values outside the simulation box.
但无论如何,它都存在一些限制和问题。它仅限于小区域,在大地图上,实时生成所有内容变得复杂,即使在大型机器上也是如此。我没有尝试设置几个模拟,所以我不知道它们是否合并在一起。

您可以烘焙模拟,但仅限于方形纹理(512x512、1024x1024...)。我没有试图推动这个东西,看看是否有可能覆盖模拟框外的值。


The list of actors to ignore is also quite limited since it will take a family of actors and not a particular actor. For example, if we put vegetation with the foliage tool, we can't choose the actor to isolate, it's either all or nothing. I was able to isolate my trees because they are blueprints, but for the ground vegetation, I had to ignore them entirely. This was not a problem for me since I don't have any vegetation in my river, but if you want to make a lake with vegetation on the edges, you'll have to cheat a little bit so that the simulation detects it.
要忽略的演员名单也非常有限,因为它需要一个演员家族,而不是一个特定的演员。例如,如果我们用树叶工具放置植被,我们无法选择要隔离的演员,要么全有,要么全无。我之所以能够隔离我的树木,是因为它们是蓝图,但对于地面植被,我不得不完全忽略它们。这对我来说不是问题,因为我的河里没有任何植被,但是如果你想在边缘有植被做一个湖,你必须作弊一点,以便模拟检测到它。

Conclusion
My advice to beginners would be to never be afraid to make mistakes, to experiment, and to try different workflows. There are a thousand ways to achieve the same result, but very few of them are entirely suitable. So don't hesitate to take the best of everything and use it to develop your own way of working.

Going out of your comfort zone is always instructive, whether it is on a creative level that pushes your imagination, or on a technical level that opens up new knowledge.

It can also be interesting to share one's WiPs either to the community through artists' groups or to people around you. An outside look will reveal possible inconsistencies in our work or bring new ideas.
结论
我对初学者的建议是永远不要害怕犯错误,尝试和尝试不同的工作流程。有一千种方法可以达到相同的结果,但很少有方法完全合适。因此,不要犹豫,充分利用一切,并利用它来发展自己的工作方式。

走出你的舒适区总是有启发性的,无论是在激发你想象力的创造性层面上,还是在开辟新知识的技术层面上。

通过艺术家团体或您周围的人将自己的WiP分享给社区也可能很有趣。从外部看会发现我们工作中可能存在的不一致之处或带来新的想法。

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参与人数 3元素币 +32 活跃度 +12 收起 理由
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Mr.铁匠 + 7 + 2 这就是大佬的世界嘛
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qq_浮云_W4z  发表于 2022-8-25 14:24:12  
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realzhengyafei  发表于 2022-9-18 10:46:53  
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很厉害,反写分享
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