老旧城市建筑(下部分)-九龙寨城-环境分解-谢尔曼华夫饼干-双语
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发布于 2022-4-28 14:36:52

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本帖最后由 秋令6689 于 2022-5-17 12:02 编辑

Electrical Boxes
电气箱
For the electrical components, I looked toward Kowloon’s alleys for reference.
至于电气元件,我向九龙的小巷寻找参考。
电气箱.jpg

Then I modeled some electrical boxes, textured them in Substance Painter, and started to assemble them into larger pieces with wooden boards.
The cables are just simple splines manually placed around. I even duplicated some to accelerate the process.
The cables and wooden boards use a tiling texture and trim sheet, respectively.
然后,我模拟了一些电箱,在Substance Painter中对它们进行了纹理处理,并开始用木板将它们组装成更大的部件。
电缆只是手动放置的简单样条。我甚至复制了一些以加快这个过程。
电缆和木板分别使用瓷砖纹理和装饰板。
19.jpg

Here’s what they look like in Unity:
以下是它们在 Unity 中的外观:
20.jpg

I felt like I also needed some extra wires mixed in, so I opted to bake some splines onto alpha cards. These can be placed anywhere in the level.
我觉得我还需要一些额外的电线混合在一起,所以我选择在alpha卡上烘烤一些样条曲线。这些可以放置在关卡中的任何位置。
21.jpg

In total, I ended up creating a few hundred assets using this workflow. Some of which, though few, are from  (public domain assets).
总的来说,我最终使用此工作流创建了几百个资产。其中一些,虽然很少,但来自(公共领域资产)。
22.jpg

Materials
材质
My material creation process is atypical. Alongside Substance Designer, I also like using custom alphas in Painter to create materials from scratch. You can find a wide variety of high-resolution, free textures on Pixabay to sample.
我的物质创作过程是非典型的。除了物质设计师,我还喜欢在 Painter 中使用自定义 alpha 从头开始创建材质。您可以在Pixabay上找到各种高分辨率的免费纹理进行采样。
04.gif

Here you can briefly see my Substance Designer concrete material that I used as a base for my plaster. The basecolor is mostly white so I can tint the color in Unity.
在这里,您可以简要地看到我的物质设计师混凝土材料,我将其用作石膏的基础。基色大多是白色的,所以我可以在Unity中着色颜色。
05.gif

The plaster is blended on top of a brick material with a mask I made in Substance Designer. Everything is on world-space UVs.
石膏与我在物质设计师中制作的面具混合在砖块材料的顶部。一切都在世界空间的UV上。
06.gif

This is the glass material. Due to its versatile layout, I can texture any glass pane with crust around the edges. I fragmented the mesh vertically so I could paint without affecting the other planes.
这是玻璃材料。由于其多功能的布局,我可以对边缘周围有外壳的任何玻璃窗格进行纹理处理。我垂直地分割网格,这样我就可以在不影响其他平面的情况下进行绘画。
23.jpg

In Unity, the glass material is transparent and refractive. The window frames are also separate so I can rotate them.
在Unity中,玻璃材料是透明和折射的。窗框也是分开的,所以我可以旋转它们。
24.jpg

Shaders
着色
For the metal trimsheet, I created a ‘paint mask color variation’ shader. It accepts any mask with hue/saturation/lightness sliders. In this case, the rust is not affected.
I can also set a random hue range per object based on world position.
对于金属装饰板,我创建了一个“油漆蒙版颜色变化”着色器。它接受任何带有色调/饱和度/亮度滑块的蒙版。在这种情况下,生锈不受影响。
我还可以根据世界位置为每个对象设置随机色调范围。
07.gif

This the Unity shadergraph:
这是 Unity 着色图:
25.jpg

I also created a fake parallax interior shader with the help of some online guides and videos. There are only two cubemaps: one for day and one for night, which I can switch between in the shader.
我还在一些在线指南和视频的帮助下创建了一个假的视差内部着色器。只有两个立方体贴图:一个用于白天,一个用于夜间,我可以在着色器中切换它们。
08.gif

This is the day version. It’s not perfectly realistic but it helps the overall image from far away.
这是日间版本。它不是完全逼真的,但它有助于从远处的整体图像。
09.gif

I rendered each side of the cubemaps in Unity using the assets I’d already made and then assembled them in Photoshop.
我使用已经制作的资源在Unity中渲染了立方体贴图的每一面,然后在Photoshop中组装它们。
26.jpg

Decals
贴花
Decals are an excellent way to push your environment further. As you can see below, I used a ton of them in the alleys.
贴花是进一步推动环境发展的绝佳方式。正如你在下面看到的,我在小巷里用了很多。
010.gif

Here you can see most of the graffiti decals I made in Photoshop using free fonts from this .
在这里,您可以看到我在Photoshop中使用的免费字体制作的大多数涂鸦贴花。
27.jpg

I also made a wide variety of damage decals in Substance Painter by handmasking my concrete material. The ‘leaking’ decals were also handpainted using alpha brushes.
我还通过手工涂抹我的混凝土材料,在Substance Painter中制作了各种各样的损坏贴花。“泄漏”的贴花也是用阿尔法刷手工绘制的。
28.jpg

Lighting & Composition
照明和构图
Compositionally, I experimented with dozens of different alley, building, and interior arrangements, each with a unique lighting setup and several camera angles but I ended up only choosing the best.
在构图上,我尝试了数十种不同的小巷,建筑物和室内布置,每种布置都有独特的照明设置和几个摄像机角度,但我最终只选择了最好的。
My lighting is often extremely simple. For the exterior, it’s fully real-time, I didn’t bake any lighting. I also use physically-accurate values and temperatures.
我的照明通常非常简单。对于外观,它是完全实时的,我没有烘烤任何照明。我还使用物理上准确的值和温度。
For example, in the alleys, the fluorescent lights are 5000K kelvin temperature with 2300 lumen intensity. The sun is 4500K kelvin with a 120k lux intensity. I used free HDRIs from Polyhaven. The best advice I can give is to consume as much artwork as possible to improve your artistic eye.
例如,在小巷中,荧光灯的温度为5000K开尔文,亮度为2300流明。太阳是4500K开尔文,强度为120k勒克斯。我使用了来自Polyhaven的免费HDRIs。我能给出的最好的建议是尽可能多地消费艺术品,以提高你的艺术眼光。
011.gif

When determining my light angles and post-processing, the histogram in Photoshop is a nice heuristic. A smooth, balanced, curved slope is my goal. This is oftentimes difficult to perfectly achieve, but it can help me visualize the distribution of values and colors.
在确定我的光角度和后期处理时,Photoshop中的直方图是一个很好的启发式方法。一个平滑、平衡、弯曲的斜坡是我的目标。这通常很难完全实现,但它可以帮助我可视化值和颜色的分布。
I also often refer to the color wheel for color schemes.  is an excellent tool to choose one. Plenty has already been written about this but here are some examples:
我也经常提到配色方案的色轮。(https://color.adobe.com/create/color-wheel)是一个选择的绝佳工具。关于这一点已经写了很多。
Composition and lighting are very iterative processes. Early on, this image compositionally favored the left side.
After flipping the image horizontally in Photoshop (a trick most 2D artists are already familiar with), I realized it felt off so I widened the shot.
构图和光照是非常迭代的过程。早期,这幅图像在构图上偏向左侧。
在Photoshop中水平翻转图像后(大多数2D艺术家已经熟悉的技巧),我意识到它感觉不对劲,所以我扩大了镜头。
Breaking ‘laser lines’ can also greatly help an image’s composition. Lasers lines are any unbroken line in an image.
打破“激光线”也可以极大地帮助图像的构图。激光线是图像中任何不间断的线。
Here you can see I broke the floor-wall line through clutter and props, like trash bags, bowls, pots, baskets, and buckets, while also contributing to the storytelling of the environment.
在这里,你可以看到我打破了地板墙的线条,穿过杂物和道具,如垃圾袋,碗,锅,篮子和水桶,同时也有助于环境的故事讲述。
012.gif

This interior image has a lot of storytelling.
这个内部形象有很多故事。
For example, the water leak running down the wall into the puddle on the floor, the dirty and chipped wall tiles, kitchen utilities, clock, wires, broken floor tile, fan, plant, lightswitch, and the nearly overflowing sinks all inform of the place, condition, time, utility, temperature, and inhabitants of this environment. Although you can’t see the windows on the left side of this room, the plant tells us there is likely one nearby, for example.
例如,漏水沿着墙壁流入地板上的水坑,肮脏和碎裂的墙砖,厨房公用设施,时钟,电线,破碎的地砖,风扇,植物,灯开关和几乎溢出的水槽都告知了该环境的地点,条件,时间,公用事业,温度和居民。虽然你看不到这个房间左侧的窗户,但植物告诉我们附近可能有一个, 例如。
013.gif
014.gif
Optimization
优化
In the exterior scene, performance became an issue early on. Because the buildings were constructed modularly, there were 50k+ wall, window, and awning pieces, which contributed greatly toward the draw call count. Strangely, I couldn’t get Unity’s native static batching to work, so I had to manually combine meshes.
在外部场景中,性能很早就成为一个问题。由于建筑物是模块化建造的,因此有50k +墙壁,窗户和遮阳篷件,这对绘制调用计数做出了巨大贡献。奇怪的是,我无法让Unity的原生静态批处理工作,所以我不得不手动组合网格。
Fortunately, this was extremely easy to do with the help of a simple script. I went from unpreferable stutters to smooth, 4k 60fps on my RTX 3080.
幸运的是,在简单脚本的帮助下,这非常容易做到。我在RTX 3080上从难以预料的口吃变成了平滑的4k 60fps。
Rendering
渲染
I rendered the final images in around 15k (5k times 3) and then downscaled them to 4k. Before screenshotting, I adjust the post-processing, sun angle, sky angle, shadows, and depth-of-field for the best look. Afterward, I bring them into Photoshop and apply a levels filter to maximize the value range in case I hadn’t properly set the exposure.
我以大约15k(5k乘以3)渲染了最终图像,然后将其缩小到4k。在截图之前,我会调整后期处理、太阳角度、天空角度、阴影和景深,以获得最佳外观。之后,我将它们带入Photoshop并应用级别滤镜以最大化值范围,以防我没有正确设置曝光。
Here’s an example:
下面是一个示例:
015.gif

Conclusion
结论
Overall, I’m quite happy with the project. Although I’m not exceptional in any particular sect of 3D, I’m always learning new things and growing as an artist.
总的来说,我对这个项目非常满意。虽然我在3D的任何特定领域都不是例外,但我总是在学习新事物并成长为一名艺术家。
1.jpg


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熾天之翼  发表于 2022-4-28 19:46:19  
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太棒了!
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lixiruiliao  发表于 2022-5-4 12:55:02  
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真牛X,一看就是电影级的

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参与人数 1元素币 +10 收起 理由
元素界王 + 10 【点赞】这很有大网气质!

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白北一介  发表于 2022-5-4 22:40:23  
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牛逼! 学习了!
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深秋的夜  发表于 2022-5-5 15:26:54  
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眼前一亮,技术贴总是让人感叹!
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